Few studies with mixed results have examined the association between chocolate consumption and mortality. We aimed to examine this association in a US population. A population-based cohort of 91891 participants aged 55 to 74 years was identified. Chocolate consumption was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate risk estimates. After an average follow-up of 13.5 years, 19586 all-cause deaths were documented. Compared with no regular chocolate consumption, the maximally adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.94], 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.90), 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.93) for >0-0.5 servings/week, >0.5-1 serving/week, >1-2 servings/week, and >2 servings/week, respectively (Ptrend = 0.009). A somewhat stronger inverse association was observed for mortality from cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. A nonlinear dose-response pattern was found for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all Pnonlinearity < 0.01), with the lowest risk observed at chocolate consumption of 0.7 servings/week and 0.6 servings/week, respectively. The favorable associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were found to be more pronounced in never smokers than in current or former smokers (all Pinteraction < 0.05). In conclusion, chocolate consumption confers reduced risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease in this US population.
Read full text: Zhong GC, Hu TY, Yang PF, Peng Y, Wu JJ, Sun WP, Cheng L, Wang CR. Chocolate consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a US population: a post hoc analysis of the PLCO cancer screening trial. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Jul 29;13(14):18564-18585. doi: 10.18632/aging.203302. Epub 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34329196; PMCID: PMC8351724.
Chocolate consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a US population: a post hoc analysis of the PLCO cancer screening trial https://t.co/c6fC2Dxjn4 #INPST
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