This site features trending Abscisic Acid (ABA)-linked items from the web for 5 of August 2019.
Trending Abscisic Acid (ABA) news item:
Bioengineers suggested ways to reduce crop losses caused by heat, cold and drought Scientists of Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS), Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and National Taiwan University comprehended state of the art scientific knowledge about plants stress response activated by unfavorable environmental factors. Researchers proposed ways to improve crop plants stress resistance by developing one’s heritable stress response memory which will allow preserving the stability of the yield obtained worldwide. A related review published in Trends in Plant Science. International biotechnology teams have long been taking actions to boost plants resistance to major stressors provoking crop loss like heat, cold, lack of/ excess of light, drought/excess of moisture, as well as various combinations of these factors. However, current methods are developed with no full consideration of the stress response mechanisms based on different variants of intercellular communication in plant organisms. Biotechnologists from FEFU, FEB RAS, and the National Taiwan University have scrutinized how the main mechanisms through which plant cells learn about the stressful situation and react to it — abscisic acid (ABA) signal subsystems and heat shock proteins — interact with each other. Scientists have pointed out that SWI/SNF proteins play an important role in the interaction between these subsystems. These proteins are responsible for remodeling of chromatin, i.e. the basis of chromosomes — the ones where the vast majority of inherited information is concentrated, and which are intended for its storage, realization, and transfer. Ultimately, SWI/SNF proteins may be involved in the formation of a plants stress memory. They were proposed for bioengineering treatment aimed to increase the stress resistance of plants… read the entire news item (from EurekAlert)
Featured recent scientific publication on Abscisic Acid (ABA):
Is There A Role for Abscisic Acid, A Proven Anti-Inflammatory Agent, in the Treatment of Ischemic Retinopathies? Ischemic retinopathies (IRs) are the main cause of severe visual impairment and sight loss, and are characterized by loss of blood vessels, accompanied by hypoxia, and neovascularization. Actual therapies, based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strategies, antioxidants or anti-inflammatory therapies are only partially effective or show some adverse side effects. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone present in vegetables and fruits that can be naturally supplied by the dietary intake and has been previously studied for its benefits to human health. It has been demonstrated that ABA plays a key role in glucose metabolism, inflammation, memory and tumor growth. This review focuses on a novel and promising role of ABA as a potential modulator of angiogenesis, oxidative status and inflammatory processes in the retina, which are the most predominant characteristics of the IRs. Thus, this nutraceutical compound might shed some light in new therapeutic strategies focused in the prevention or amelioration of IRs-derived pathologies… read the entire scientific publication (from Antioxidants)
Trending tweet on #Abscisicacid:
Background knowledge on Abscisic Acid (ABA):
Abscisic Acid (ABA) Plants perceive a variety of environmental and endogenous signals, which elicit appropriate responses with altered metabolism, growth, and development. Phytohormones are signaling molecules, present in trace quantities and are tightly controlled by various biosynthetic, catabolic, and conjugation pathways. Changes in hormone concentration determine a wide range of plant responses, some of which involve interactions with environmental factors. One such important phytohormone is abscisic acid (ABA), a sesquiterpenoid (15-carbon) which is partly produced in chloroplasts and other plastids. A low basal level of ABA is required for normal growth and development of plants. However, a dramatic and rapid increase in ABA levels occurs due to de novo synthesis in vegetative parts of the plants exposed to osmotic stress, as well as in developing seeds during maturation. Elevated levels of ABA play a central role in promoting stomatal closure, dehydration tolerance, leaf senescence, seed dormancy and maturation, and coordinated growth of roots and shoots. ABA apparently acts as a signal of reduced water availability. This is manifested at the physiological level, by controlling germination, stomatal movements, and growth. At the molecular level, ABA-dependent changes in gene expression and posttranslational modifications underpin these physiological processes. Mutants As Tools for Studying ABA Biosynthesis and Signaling: Mutant plants with altered biosynthesis, perception, or responses have been crucial in identification of various components involved in ABA biosynthesis and signaling. The genetic screens and selections that have been used include production of nondormant seeds, loss or gain of sensitivity to ABA during germination, seedling or root growth, and altered expression of reporter genes. These approaches have yielded three classes of ABA mutants: ABA-deficient, -hypersensitive, and -insensitive mutants. The characteristic feature of ABA-deficient mutants is a wilty phenotype largely due to impaired stomatal closure (impaired ABA biosynthesis in aba1/los6, vp14, aba2, and aba3/los5 mutants; ABA1, VP14, ABA2, and ABA3 encode enzymes of ABA biosynthetic pathway, zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), and molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MoCoSu) respectively). Hypersensitive mutants display enhanced sensitivity to ABA, resulting in diminished germination rates at low ABA concentrations and reduced water loss due to enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closure (Arabidopsis era1, sad1, abh1, hyl1, rop10, and fiery1). The ERA1 gene encodes a protein farnesyltransferase; HYL1, SAD1, and ABH1 genes encode different types of RNAbinding proteins; ROP10 encodes a small G protein; and FIERY1 encodes an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. In addition to these mutants, silencing of the calcium sensor SCaBP5 and protein kinase PKS3 resulted in ABA hypersensitivity. ABA-insensitive mutants including abi1, abi2, abi3, abi4, abi5, and rcn1 from Arabidopsis, and vp1 (orthologue of abi3) from maize have been identified… read more (from Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 1st Edition)
Keywords: Abscisic Acid (ABA), #Abscisicacid, nondormant seeds, sesquiterpenoids, nutraceutical compounds, phytohormones, neovascularization, ischemic retinopathies, SWI/SNF proteins, crop plants stress resistance, bioengineering.
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