Premature ovarian failure and infertility are adverse effects of cancer therapies. The mechanism underlying chemotherapy-mediated depletion of the ovarian reserve remains unclear. Here, we aim to identify the signaling pathways involved in the loss of the ovarian reserve to prevent the damaging effects of chemotherapy. We evaluated the effects of cyclophosphamide, one of the most damaging chemotherapeutic drugs, against follicle reserve. In vivo studies showed that the cyclophosphamide-induced loss of ovarian reserve occurred through a sequential mechanism. Cyclophosphamide exposure induced the activation of both DNAPK-γH2AX-checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2)-p53/TAp63α isoform and protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) signaling axes in the nucleus of oocytes. Concomitant administration of an allosteric ABL inhibitor and cyclophosphamide modulated both pathways while protecting the ovarian reserve from chemotherapy assaults. As a consequence, the fertility of the treated mice was prolonged. On the contrary, the administration of an allosteric ABL activator enhanced the lethal effects of cyclophosphamide while shortening mouse fertility. Therefore, kinase-independent inhibition may serve as an effective ovarian-protective strategy in women under chemotherapy.
Bellusci G, Mattiello L, Iannizzotto V, Ciccone S, Maiani E, Villani V, Diederich M, Gonfloni S. Kinase-independent inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced pathways protects the ovarian reserve and prolongs fertility. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Sep 27;10(10):726. doi: 10.1038/s41419-019-1961-y. PubMed PMID: 31562295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6765024.
Keywords: Kinase-independent inhibition, cyclophosphamide-induced pathways, ovarian reserve and prolongs fertility, ovarian protection, allosteric ABL inhibitor, oocytes, DNAPK-γH2AX-checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2)-p53/TAp63α isoform and protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) signaling axes, follicle reserve, chemotherapy, cancer therapies.
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