Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) are germline‐encoded receptors that are central to innate and adaptive immune responses. Owing to their vital role in inflammation, TLRs are rational targets in clinics; thus, many ligands and biologics have been reported to overcome the progression of various inflammatory and malignant conditions and support the immune system. For each TLR, at least one, and often many, drug formulations are being evaluated. Ligands reported as stand‐alone drugs may also be reported based on their use in combinatorial therapeutics as adjuvants. Despite their profound efficacy in TLR‐modulation in preclinical studies, multiple drugs have been terminated at different stages of clinical trials. Here, TLR modulating drugs that have been evaluated in clinical trials are discussed, along with their mode of action, suggestive failure reasons, and ways to improve the clinical outcomes. This review presents recent advances in TLR‐targeting drugs and provides directions for more successful immune system manipulation.
Anwar MA, Shah M, Kim J, Choi S. Recent clinical trends in Toll-like receptor targeting therapeutics. Med Res Rev. 2019 May;39(3):1053-1090. doi: 10.1002/med.21553. Epub 2018 Nov 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 30450666; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6587958.
Keywords: Toll-like receptor; adjuvant; clinical trial; drug; innate immunity; recent clinical trends; Toll‐like receptor targeting therapeutics; #ClinicalTrials; #Inflammation; #Medicine.
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