Trending Adrenergic Receptors-linked topics for 7 of August 2019

This site features trending Adrenergic Receptors-linked items from the web for 7 of August 2019.

Trending Adrenergic Receptors news item:

Noradrenaline enhances vision through beta-adrenergic receptors: Noradrenaline is a neuromodulator secreted in the brain depending on behavioral context and physiological states of animal, influencing a wide range of physiological functions by modulating brain activity. It may be best known as a hormone to regulate heart rate and blood flow, and many drugs, such as well-known beta blockers, target its effects. It also modulates the visual system.”Noradrenaline administration modulates the primary visual cortex (V1)”, says Osaka University Associate Professor Satoshi Shimegi. “It changes the spatial sensitivity of this region.”… read the entire news item (from Medical Express)

Featured recent scientific publication on Adrenergic Receptors:

Molecular basis for high-affinity agonist binding in GPCRs: G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are exceptionally good targets for drug development. Warne et al. describe four crystal structures of complexes of a GPCR—the β1-adrenergic receptor—in its active state. They used nanobodies (recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies) and engineered G protein to stabilize the β1-adrenergic receptor bound to a full agonist, two partial agonists, and a weak partial agonist. Comparison of these structures to the inactive state elucidates how agonist binding is altered in the active conformation… read the entire scientific publication (from Science)

Trending tweet on #adrenergicreceptor:

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Background knowledge on Adrenergic Receptors:

Adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors) mediate the central and peripheral actions of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline); they are widely distributed throughout the body. There are three major adrenergic receptor types: alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta. Each of these three receptor types is further divided into three subtypes. Adrenergic receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors, which consist of a single polypeptide chain with seven hydrophobic regions that are thought to form alpha helical structures that span or transverse the membrane. Because the mechanism of action of adrenergic receptors includes the activation of guanine nucleotide regulatory binding proteins (G proteins), they are also called G proteincoupled receptors. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine: Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a hormone released from the adrenal gland. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are catecholamines, because they have both the catechol moiety (two hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring) and an amine (NH2). Both of these catecholamine messengers play important roles in the regulation of diverse physiological systems by acting through adrenergic receptors. Stimulation of adrenergic receptors by catecholamines released in response to activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system results in a variety of effects such as increased heart rate, regulation of vascular tone, and bronchodilatation. In the central nervous system, adrenergic receptors are involved in many functions including memory, learning, alertness, and the response to stress. Norepinephrine is synthesized starting with the amino acid tyrosine, which is obtained from the diet and can also be synthesized from phenylalanine. Tyrosine is converted to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, and DOPA in turn is converted to dopamine. Dopamine is then converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase. In the adrenal medulla and in a few brain regions, norepinephrine is converted to epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine Nmethyltransferase. The major mechanism by which the effects of norepinephrine are terminated is re-uptake back into the nerve terminal by a high affinity norepinephrine transporter. Epinephrine, as well as norepinephrine are metabolized to inactive products. Norepinephrine is metabolized by the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA). The major metabolite found in the blood and urine is MHPG. Epinephrine is similarly metabolized by MAO and COMT to VMA… read more (from Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 1st Edition)

Keywords: Adrenergic Receptors, #adrenergicreceptor, monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), phenylethanolamine Nmethyltransferase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), bronchodilatation, catecholamines, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), nanobodies, G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), beta blockers, neuromodulators.

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